Carbon Black Production Methods and Types

Carbon Black is divided into 4 groups: Furnace Black, Channel (Lamp) Black, Thermal Black and Acetylene Black. Furnace blacks are common and essential types of carbon black. They are made by the partial combustion of hydrocarbons at 1200-1600 °C in the absence of oxygen. The formation of carbon types of varying standards relies on the production methods. The most basic varieties are ISAF, HAF, FEF, GPF and SRF (The letter F coming last refers to furnace). Apart from these, P-Type and Jet Black products are also available.

HAF (High – Abrasion Furnace): It is a “furnace black” variety resistant to wear. Its grain structure is normal and small. It enhances tensile and breaking strengths of the material by delivering very good resistance against bending and deformation. It is a hard Carbon Black variety.


ISAF (Intermediate Superabrasion Furnace): It is highly resistant to wear. It has a normal structure and very small grain size. It enhances tensile and breaking strengths of the material. It is a hard Carbon Black variety.

FEF (Fast Extruding Furnace): It is wear-resistant and allows rapid extrusion process. It is structurally normal and has medium grain size. It is a soft Carbon Black variety.

GPF (General Purpose Furnace): It is a variety used for general purposes and has normal grain size. It can be easily worked. It is a soft Carbon Black variety.

SRF (Semi-Reinforcing Furnace Black): It is used in the products that are intended to be highly resistant to wear. It is widely used in the plastics industry. Its grain size is small. It is a hard Carbon Black variety.

P-Type: It is Carbon Black variety that is generally used in the making of plastic piping. It has good UV resistance and grain size of ≤25 nm.

Jet Black: It is used in industrial applications that require much more metallic shine than that provided by Carbon Black. While Carbon Black features blue shades, Jet Black has much more black shades. Its grain size is approximately 10 nm.

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